let’s say you have a MySQL database on db1.db and you want to clone it to db2.db
the “official” way to do this is to run a “mysqldump” on db1.db and then import the resulting .sql file into the db2.db server.
There are problems with this approach:
- mysqldump locks the source database, making it inaccessible while the dump is happening.
- mysqldump creates files which may be many times the size of the source database’s binary files, potentially exhausting the space on your source server before it’s even done.
- the resulting file then needs to be imported into the target server, which could take hours depending on the size.
I needed to clone some databases in a hurry that are about 20G in size. The method I used ended up taking less than half an hour to complete, and the source database (db1.db) only had to be down for less than a minute, instead of the potential /hours/ in the mysqldump method.
- use rsync on db2.db to copy the data directories from db1.db to db2.db:
cd /var/lib/ && rsync firstname.lastname@example.org:/var/lib/mysql ./ -rva –progress –delete
- use rsync on db2.db to copy binary logs from db1.db to db2.db:
cd /var/log/ && rsync email@example.com:/var/log/mysql ./ -rva –progress –delete
- repeat 1&2 (the first time around would take some time. the second time around will be quick)
- on db1.db, stop the database
service mysqld stop
- on db2.db, repeat 1&2 one last time
- on db1.db, start the database again, and start the slave service if you need to
service mysqld start
- on db2.db, remove auto.cnf and any innodb log files
cd /var/lib/mysql/ && rm -f auto.cnf ib_logfile*
- start the database, and start the slave if needed
service mysqld start
With the above method, your source database will be down for only a minute or so (steps 4-6).
The reason that 1&2 are repeated 3 times:
- clone the db1.db database from scratch. this will take a while
- because it took so long to run #1, there are probably a lot of changes. repeat to get those changes
- when you stop db1.db, some files will get final changes as they are changed. grab those after db1.db has been stopped
You need to delete any existing innodb logs (step 7) which might cause the system to attempt to “fix” some tables it might think are broken. but, because we did a clean shutdown in step 4, this is not necessary. so delete the log files (they will be recreated automatically).
If you are doing the clone because you want to create a new slave database, then the database needs a new internal ID that it will send to the master. By deleting auto.cnf, you force the MySQL server to create a new unique ID.